Pubblicazioni

Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Creative Atmosphere: cultural industries and local development

The aim of the paper is to develop an analytical framework for understanding and measuring the impact of cultural industries and creative activities in local development. Despite the great debate on the importance of cultural and creative industries in policy, academic and business circles, we still lack a grounded theoretical model to understand how these activities contributes to local development and how far enhancement of culture-based creativity may be linked to certain social and economic configurations in these industries. In order to better understand the role of cultural industries in local development we propose a novel framework, which tries to depict the main actors and structure of local systems of cultural production and under what conditions such systems are able to generate and express creative atmosphere.

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Autori

Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

How much diverse is the World Heritage list?

In 2005 UNESCO launched the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The aim of the Convention was to foster cultural diversity worldwide, having knowledge of the role of cultural diversity and cultural activities in promoting economic development. The World Heritage List can be considered a basic reference for the protection of cultural diversity as well. This requires that the properties in the List fairly represent the main expressions of the human activity, according to a harmonious development respectful of cultural diversity. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, by using the Shannon-Weaver’s index of diversity, we measure how much cultural diversity there has been in the World Heritage List since its beginning in 1978. In other words, we assess at which extent each culture is represented in the most important international system of cultural preservation and promotion. Second, we estimate the number of sites which guarantees the maximum level of cultural diversity and, then, we propose how to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. Results show that just after the first two years of activity, the cultural diversity attained a good level and kept this level high until now. Notwithstanding this general conclusion, we estimate that there is room for a further improvement in the diversity by increasing the number of sites filling the cultural categories not still represented. It will result in 371 additional sites. Once attained the number of sites which guarantees the maximum of cultural diversity, the main policy left is to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. The tool we select to launch this new strategy is a tournament model, according to which each property can be challenged by an external site belonging to the same cultural category. As a final result, there will be the substitution of lower-quality World Heritage properties with higher-quality properties. The model also takes into account risks related to political and lobby activities undermining the whole quality of the system and is used as a base to propose solutions.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Loving diversities, correcting inequalities. A proposal for a World Heritage tax

The aim of this paper is to cope with the imbalances affecting World Heritage Sites as to the conditions of their conservation and the resources available for their valorisation. We propose a policy mechanism divided into three phases. The first one aims at providing an objective approach to measure the needs and diversity of World Heritage Sites. The second phase presents valorisation strategies to generate new economic resources, in particular from cultural tourism. The third one illustrates the tax mechanism based on collecting resources trough an earmarked tax on tourist activities and redistributing these resources at a regional scale. Our proposal is a contribution to the growing literature on Unesco World Heritage sites and it may be useful to ground the decision making of the recently formed Unesco Centres aimed at raising funds for the World Heritage conservation.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Santagata Walter | Signorello Giovanni

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Loving cultural heritage. Private individual giving and prosocial behavior

The aim of this paper is to analyse patterns of private individual giving to Cultural Heritage institutions in Italy. Based on the emerging economic literature on pro-social behavior, we carried out a Contingent Valuation survey to assess individuals’ willingness to donate to museums and heritage organizations according to different conditions and set of incentives. Our findings reveal that intrinsic motivations and accountability of the recipient institutions may be more effective drivers for eliciting charitable giving than the usually proposed fiscal incentives. The results provide avenues for future empirical research and policy suggestions for fund raising cultural institutions.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Enhancing the valorisation of UNESCO World Heritage sites: a pigouvian approach

The aim of this paper is to cope with the disequilibrium affecting World Heritage Sites as to the conditions of their conservation and the resources available for their valorisation. We propose a tax-based mechanism divided into three phases. The first one aims at providing an objective approach to measure the needs and diversity of World Heritage Sites. The second phase presents valorisation strategies togenerate new economic resources from cultural tourism. The third one illustrates the tax mechanism based on collecting resources trough an earmarked tax on tourist activities and redistributing these resources at a regional scale. Our proposal is a contribution to the growing literature on Unesco World Heritage sites and it may be useful to ground the decision making of the recently formed Unesco Centres aimed at raising funds for the World Heritage conservation.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Borrione Paola

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

The city mouse and the country mouse: the geography of the creativity and cultural production in Italy

Through census employment data we analyze the evolving structure of the Italian cultural economy and highlights diverging spatial and organizational patterns of cultural production systems in urban and regional areas. Whilst large metropolitan areas remain the more important loci of cultural content production and consumption, craft-based sectors and creative systems of design have a tendency to locate in non-metropolitan centers. Based on the historical formation of manufacturing districts and on the emergence of Rome and Milan as “world cities”, the Italian cultural economy provides an interesting case study to analyze the geographical patterns of different cultural product industries. We extend previous literature on the geography of the cultural economy by offering new insights as to conditions in which metropolitan and rural areas emerge as leading centers of cultural production and creativity.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Biblioteche e archivi: il digitale e le sfide per l’Italia

In Italia ci sono 15502 biblioteche e 99 archivi. La digitalizzazione dei libri e dei documenti, che appare in tutto il mondo come una scelta strategica, è in ritardo in Italia soprattutto per l’assenza di un progetto globale. La digitalizzazione è un fenomeno iniziato agli inizi degli anni ’90 e se ne presentano una breve storia e i principali pregi e difetti. In Italia si assiste ad una trasformazione delle biblioteche in centri culturali (si veda il caso di Torino e di Milano), ma la lettura è ancora una scelta minoritaria (il prestito bibliotecario per abitante in Italia è quattro volte inferiore alla media europea). Di fronte a questi dati, si capisce come l’accesso a testi e contenuti digitali possa essere concepito come una politica per far crescere il numero di lettori nel nostro paese.

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Autori

Friel Martha Mary | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Make material cultural heritage work

As the first front of industrialization, the closest to local resources and traditional knowledge, and the least demanding in terms of financial capital and technological innovation, material culture-based goods have become a modern example of sustainable and endogenous growth based on small and micro cultural firms. For these reasons, goods based on material culture are, in relative economic terms, more important in developing countries, where technological innovation and industrial mass production are less common. A brief discussion of the definition of material culture and a historical overview of the sector’s evolution will be followed by an analysis of quantitative data on the economic importance of artisan goods on national and international markets. The focus of the paper is to present a model on the transition from traditional handicraft production to soft industrial design and address the two main policies which should be adopted: the cultural district perspective and the assignment of collective trademarks.

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Autori

Cuccia Tiziana | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Aspetti Istituzionali ed economici della domanda: un’analisi di valutazione contigente sulla disponibilità a pagare per il marchio collettivo di San Gregorio Armeno

Questo lavoro è dedicato all’analisi della domanda dei prodotti del presepe venduti e cercati nelle 40 botteghe della caratteristica via di San Gregorio Armeno, che si snoda per trecento metri nei quartieri del centro storico di Napoli e che dai primi decenni dell’Ottocento è diventata simbolo e contenitore della cultura e dell’arte presepiale napoletana. Per tradizione antica ogni famiglia napoletana conosce questo vicolo per la qualità e varietà degli oggetti sacri e profani che vi sono esposti ed ogni anno ripete quel fenomeno che Domenico Rea chiamò “crescendo napoletano”, una sinfonia sociale che rinnova con una intensità crescente fino al giorno di Natale gesti e passioni, acquisti e ricostruzioni della scena della natività di Gesù, che la tradizione napoletana vuole rappresentata laica, tra raffigurazioni della vita dei campi e della città.

Gli aspetti istituzionali dell’analisi della domanda riguarderanno la stima della disponibilità a pagare dei consumatori per un marchio collettivo che identifichi le sculture e gli oggetti degli artigiani-artisti di San Gregorio Armeno. Un marchio collettivo, come vedremo, ha diverse funzioni e in particolare verrà illustrata quella corrispondente a una speciale procedura per incrementare la qualità dei prodotti offerti e garantiti ai potenziali acquirenti. Gli aspetti economici della domanda concerneranno le principali caratteristiche delle scelte dei consumatori.

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