Autori

Belligni Silvano | Bertacchini Enrico | Buzio Aldo | Foà Sergio | Re Alessio | Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Rapporto internazionale sulle strategie di Capacity Building per la valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale

L’oggetto della presente ricerca è lo studio delle strategie di capacity building nel campo delle politiche e delle organizzazioni culturali.

Il rafforzamento delle capacità è sempre più percepito come un elemento essenziale dello sviluppo sostenibile, improntato sulle persone. La Capacity building risulta parte fondamentale di un progetto di sviluppo agli occhi dei finanziatori e dalle agenzie multilaterali.

Lo sviluppo delle capacità è centrale per le organizzazioni internazionali per raggiungere gli obiettivi prefissati nella loro missione istituzionale. Questi obiettivi riguardano nella maggior parte dei casi beni pubblici globali di grande importanza (come la conservazione del patrimonio mondiale culturale e naturale), il cui raggiungimento richiede efficaci strategie a diversi livelli, dal rafforzamento delle competenze e conoscenze individuali alla capacità di operare per le istituzioni e organizzazioni locali, nazionali e sovranazionali.

Tra le capacità più importanti per la gestione del World Heritage si possono ricordare il tema della conservazione e monitoraggio dei siti, la preparazione al rischio di minacce naturali e antropiche, l’efficace implementazione delle legislazioni e policy sul patrimonio culturale e naturale, la capacità di promozione dei siti, questioni connesse a fasi post-conflittuali o a problemi di genere nella gestione dei siti.

L’analisi delle capacità di gestione e conservazione del Patrimonio Mondiale risulta particolarmente importante per l’Italia e per il Piemonte in un’ottica di valorizzazione del proprio patrimonio culturale e naturale. L’Italia è infatti attualmente il paese con il più alto numero di siti del Patrimonio Mondiale), mentre in Piemonte sono presenti i siti delle Residenze Sabaude e dei Sacri Monti, e quello dei Paesaggi Vitivinicoli di Langhe, Roero e Monferrato. Per questo motivo, l’analisi dei fabbisogni e delle strategie di capacity building nella gestione e conservazione del patrimonio culturale e naturale da parte dei diversi soggetti coinvolti rappresenta un importante campo di ricerca con notevoli applicazioni in campo di policy, sia a livello internazionale sia a livello locale.

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Autori

Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

How much diverse is the World Heritage list?

In 2005 UNESCO launched the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The aim of the Convention was to foster cultural diversity worldwide, having knowledge of the role of cultural diversity and cultural activities in promoting economic development. The World Heritage List can be considered a basic reference for the protection of cultural diversity as well. This requires that the properties in the List fairly represent the main expressions of the human activity, according to a harmonious development respectful of cultural diversity. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, by using the Shannon-Weaver’s index of diversity, we measure how much cultural diversity there has been in the World Heritage List since its beginning in 1978. In other words, we assess at which extent each culture is represented in the most important international system of cultural preservation and promotion. Second, we estimate the number of sites which guarantees the maximum level of cultural diversity and, then, we propose how to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. Results show that just after the first two years of activity, the cultural diversity attained a good level and kept this level high until now. Notwithstanding this general conclusion, we estimate that there is room for a further improvement in the diversity by increasing the number of sites filling the cultural categories not still represented. It will result in 371 additional sites. Once attained the number of sites which guarantees the maximum of cultural diversity, the main policy left is to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. The tool we select to launch this new strategy is a tournament model, according to which each property can be challenged by an external site belonging to the same cultural category. As a final result, there will be the substitution of lower-quality World Heritage properties with higher-quality properties. The model also takes into account risks related to political and lobby activities undermining the whole quality of the system and is used as a base to propose solutions.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Loving diversities, correcting inequalities. A proposal for a World Heritage tax

The aim of this paper is to cope with the imbalances affecting World Heritage Sites as to the conditions of their conservation and the resources available for their valorisation. We propose a policy mechanism divided into three phases. The first one aims at providing an objective approach to measure the needs and diversity of World Heritage Sites. The second phase presents valorisation strategies to generate new economic resources, in particular from cultural tourism. The third one illustrates the tax mechanism based on collecting resources trough an earmarked tax on tourist activities and redistributing these resources at a regional scale. Our proposal is a contribution to the growing literature on Unesco World Heritage sites and it may be useful to ground the decision making of the recently formed Unesco Centres aimed at raising funds for the World Heritage conservation.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Enhancing the valorisation of UNESCO World Heritage sites: a pigouvian approach

The aim of this paper is to cope with the disequilibrium affecting World Heritage Sites as to the conditions of their conservation and the resources available for their valorisation. We propose a tax-based mechanism divided into three phases. The first one aims at providing an objective approach to measure the needs and diversity of World Heritage Sites. The second phase presents valorisation strategies togenerate new economic resources from cultural tourism. The third one illustrates the tax mechanism based on collecting resources trough an earmarked tax on tourist activities and redistributing these resources at a regional scale. Our proposal is a contribution to the growing literature on Unesco World Heritage sites and it may be useful to ground the decision making of the recently formed Unesco Centres aimed at raising funds for the World Heritage conservation.

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