Atti del Convegno Internazionale sui

Overlapping cultural commons and districts in the great Limpopo transfrontier conservation area: potential for local economic development

Bocchino Clara | Murphree Michael
In the plethora of applications of Commons theory, the rise of Cultural Commons, as a specific research field, reflects the acknowledgement that various aspects come together when trying to analyse relationships in a given physical or virtual context. Despite the lack of an agreed definition, one cannot escape the understanding that Cultural Commons are found when identity is shared amongst a group of people. This may be classically represented by language, customs and traditions in a given landscape, although new frontiers are opening in information sharing, property rights, such as the Creative Commons, and other fields related to the globalisation of economic and social networks and processes. In the first case, which is the focus of our paper, the idiosyncrasy between social capital and natural capital is so inevitable that the development of factual Cultural Districts seems like the ‘formalisation’ of a natural process, whose resilience to externalities have been tried by historical processes. However, this experience may not be sufficient to promote local economic development when interacting with development projects or centralised planning that occur in the Cultural District, yet outside the sphere of decision-making of the primary stakeholders: the makers of the District. This paper, based on years of field work (in the East Southern African region), seeks to explore the nexus between Cultural Commons and Cultural Districts on the theoretical level, and suggests the possibility of a new sub-category of Cultural District. The Venda and Shangaan3 communities, which have been the object of research by the authors, are presented here as cross-border Cultural Districts due to the spread of the communities on the territory. They are used as examples to define what an Ethnic Cultural District is, and to advocate the importance of knowing and understanding such a District in order to mitigate conflicts and promote real local economic development, particularly when this stems from large scale centrally planned projects by national governments and/or international agencies. The first section is a conceptual discussion over Cultural Districts and introduces the idea of Ethnic Cultural District. The second section is the core of the paper as it presents the communities object of our research under a historical and socioeconomic perspective. The third section introduces the element of conservation as an externality in the development of the Districts. The last section, (before our conclusion), discusses the opportunities for local economic development and the threats to the Cultural District posed by a major conservation project in the area. The conclusions will re-discuss the requirements for the Ethnic Cultural District in the light of the knowledge presented in the paper.
Atti del Convegno Internazionale sui

Cultural commons and cultural communities: the case studies of Milan designers and Italian futurists artists

Fiorentino Paola | Friel Martha Mary | Marrelli Massimo | Santagata Walter
“Cultural Commons” refer to cultures located in time and space – either physical or virtual – and shared and expressed by a socially cohesive community. A Cultural Common is a system of intellectual resources available on a given geographical or virtual area. A Cultural Commons could be thought as the evolution of the more traditional concept of cultural district or cultural cluster. Ideas, creativity and styles of a community, traditional knowledge, credence, rites and customs, shared and participated productive techniques define a Cultural Commons. Some examples are: the image of a city, a local language, the brand of Barolo wine, an artistic movement, user generated contents on the web, traditional knowledge held by indigenous communities, and the creativity expressed by designers’ and artist’s communities. In this paper we will tackle the problem of Cultural Commons from two points of view; first of all we will propose a definition of what Cultural Commons are. From this descends that C.C. can show different evolutionary path, but at the same time that the presence of C.C. may have different effects on the “performance”/”success” of the individuals agents who are part of the community. We will study both the evolution and the “performance” with respect to two C.C.: the Milano Designers Community and the Futurism Artistic Movement.
Atti del Convegno Internazionale sui

Towards a “cultural commons” approach to international cooperation in the framework of the UNESCO convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions

Patnaik Dabiru Sridhar
This paper presents an opportunity to consider aspects of international cultural cooperation in the realm of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (hereinafter the Convention or Cultural Diversity Convention) adopted in October 2005 and entered into force in 2007. Besides ensuring ‘culture’, its formidable place in international law the adoption of the Convention is heralded as a significant way forward in contribution to the movement of protection and promotion of cultural diversity. This work is divided into three parts. It would be argued that an appropriate understanding of the legal options for international cooperation in the Convention, manifest with commons’ approach is the key for good governance. Part I of the paper deals with the Convention’s normative framework of international cooperation. Part II deals with the prospects for extension or application of the cultural commons approach to the Convention, with a focus on the challenges of globalization to cultural diversity and the need to address cultural diversity as public good. Some concluding observations are presented in Part III of the paper. Two caveats at the outset: It is understood that globalization is contemporaneous and no value based judgments are being offered. The other caveat is: substantive analysis in Part II of the paper is based on some expert commentaries/remarks but not on any economic doctrine.
Atti del Convegno Internazionale sui

Food and cultural commons

Pessione Matteo | Piaggio RIccardo
The idea of “Cultural Commons”, partly borrowed from the “open” model of “Creative Commons”, derives from the will to create a collective economy of knowledge by creatively and strategically cultivating heritage and memory. Unlike the tangible and intangible goods formally ratified by supranational organisations such as UNESCO, one can imagine the construction of “horizontal” networks, possibly territorial or local, that take defining elements of their own collective memory and transform them into goods and services with the contemporary paradigm of efficiency and sufficiency in production and consumption models. Therefore, whatever the Cultural Commons’ field of application, attention must be paid to the environment (materials, recycling, sustainable production techniques) and to culture as new values to be associated with the production of goods and services. From this perspective, it is fundamental to identify marketing and management planning tools which are capable of integrating narrative and cultural elements with a new market logic. The ability to formulate strategies which integrate the following into a network takes on vital importance: – the communities that replace the exclusive nature of traditional consumers at whom traditional marketing strategies are aimed. Such communities are to be linked emotionally and conceptually to the values that the brand represents. – the producers, bearers of tradition, innovation and productive skills. In light of the above, two elements in particular acquire significant value: social capital and intellectual capital. Cultural commons can become a key element in order to encourage the combining and exchange of knowledge among producers and communities of consumers through the implementation of two strategies: shift from marketing to “Societing”, the development of meta-organisations, intended as systems of systems capable of increasing consonance between producers and the marketplace. This paper will present an analysis of organic production and of products linked to the excellence of the territory of the Valle d’Aosta, as well as a case studyrelating to a project for the creation of a registered brand for the promotion and production of certain products linked to local traditions and identity.
Atti del Convegno Internazionale sui

Institutional approach of self-governance on cultural heritage as common pool resources

Zhang Yan
This paper starts with definition and value system of cultural heritage, clearly defines the particular cultural heritage for following analysis, tries to explore complicated value system of cultural heritage, and the dilemma when cultural heritage preservation challenged by economic development impetus, or even poverty alleviation, thus to argue that cultural heritage should be defined as CPRs rather than public goods, determining the nature of cultural heritage is crucial for its analysis and governing discussion. Cultural heritage not only suffers from CPRs dilemmas, such as Prisoner’s dilemma at individual level, Tragedy of the Commons at community level and Logic of the Collective Action at group decision level, but also suffers from the problems of enclosure, congestion and overuse, which all makes it fitting in CPRs definition. Hence, governing cultural heritage should proceed in management from CPRs institutional approach, despite its conventional governing solutions, namely privatisation, state intervention and international regulation. Ostrom (1990)’ s institutional approach of CPRs self-governance based on voluntary cooperation could be introduced into cultural heritage management scheme, section 4 analyses how this self-governing approach could solve three general problems that conventional solutions could not reach, and demonstrates Ostrom’s eight design principles of long-enduring self-governing of CPRs could be applied to cultural heritage, thus to argue that self-governing should be a new supplementary approach for cultural heritage management in the future. Followed are simple case study and conclusion.